The navigator shared the nose of the aircraft with the bombardier and was responsible for keeping track of where the plane was and what heading the pilot needed to reach the next point on the mission. Navigators used many methods to navigate. One of the most common was actually navigating by the sun and stars. During combat, navigators used a combination of visual landmarks, radio triangulation, and dead reckoning (the idea that flying at a certain speed, with a certain wind, on a certain heading, mathematically a plane should be in a certain spot). The navigator was also responsible for protecting the aircraft, and would frequently man guns on either side of the nose.